B virus is also commonly referred to as herpes B, monkey B virus, herpesvirus simiae, and herpesvirus B. The virus is found among macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, and cynomolgus monkeys (also called crab-eating or long-tailed macaques). Most macaques carry B virus without overt signs of disease. Many other accepted terms for this virus exist, including Herpesvirus simiae, herpes B, monkey B virus, and herpesvirus B. Where the species of macaque is noted, cases of human B-virus infection have all been associated with direct or indirect exposure specifically to rhesus macaques (14 19). All of these cases are tragic cases, said Chapman. Types of macaque monkeys known to carry herpes B are Tibetan macaques, lion-tailed macaques and crab-eating macaques.
Herpes simian B virus (Macacine herpesvirus 1 (formerly Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, CHV-1 1 ), Herpesvirus simiae, B virus) is the endemic simplexvirus of macaque monkeys. Like all herpes viruses, the B virus genome contains double-stranded DNA and is approximately 157 kbp in length. Among the nonhuman-primate herpesviruses, only herpes B virus is clearly able to cause disease in humans. Herpes B virus demonstrates a broad host range in tissue culture, producing a lytic infection in cells of humans, nonhuman primates, small mammals, and many birds. Japanese, and long-tailed (or cynomolgus) macaques, all of which are very closely related phylogenetically. Other macaque species readily acquire and transmit the virus, but whether these species serve as natural hosts is unclear. The virus subsequently has been called B virus, herpes B virus, herpesvirus simiae, or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1. All species of macaques appear to serve as the natural hosts of B virus.
Herpes B virus is carried by the majority of adult macaque monkeys. You should begin first aid immediately if you have been bitten or scratched by a monkey that can carry herpes B virus. Be sure to clean the exposed area thoroughly with soap and water, and then rinse the area under running water for 15-20 minutes. It is the Old World monkeys that carry most of the diseases that are dangerous to humans. If this was a bite, wound, scratch or exposure of your lips, mouth, nose or eyes to the saliva, sneeze or cough of a rhesus monkey or another macaque monkey or a puncture from an instrument that was in contact with any of those species and the Herpes-B and tuberculosis status of the animal is unknown, uncertain or positive, have your physician call ZVED (800-232-4636). All Old World Monkeys should be tested for herpes-B when they are first obtained. Non-human primates can carry a variety of zoonotic diseases as detailed below. The procedure outlined below is adapted from recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and has been shown to reduce the risk of contracting Herpes B in the event of a bite or other wound, or an exposure to mucous membranes or broken skin. Since B virus has a high prevalence in conventional primate colonies, and animals can carry the disease without showing symptoms, it is best to assume that all primates are infected.
Herpes B Virus
One of two macaques captured by authorities Wednesday, Oct. 19, 2011, a day after their owned released dozens of wild animals and then killed himself near Zanesville, Ohio Photograph by Columbus Zoo and Aquarium, Graham S. Monkeys can transmit herpes B to humans through all the same means with which they can infect one another a bite, a scratch, a splash of saliva or, in a laboratory setting, via an accidental scrape from a contaminated needle. Silver Springs, Florida: Silver River: Rhesus macaque/monkey. The virus is also called Herpes B virus or the monkey B virus as it is commonly found in macaque monkeys, including rhesus macaques and pig-tailed macaques. 2015 NatureWorldNews.com All rights reserved. The exotic-animal trade is moving disease-carrying primates from labs and zoos into the hands of pet owners. Consequently, pets, castoffs, and all manner of problem animals find their way to her clinic. It wasn’t that science didn’t support their contentions: Since the early 1930s, primatologists have known that macaques carry Herpesvirus simiae, commonly known as herpes B or B virus (scientifically referred to as cercopithecine herpesvirus), which can cause a potentially fatal brain infection in humans. Macaques typically carry the B virus throughout their lives and shed it intermittently in saliva or genital secretions. 10 due to complications from the Herpes B virus. But well before this tragic story broke in local news outlets, colleagues at Yerkes learned about her struggle with the rare disease and received frequent updates about her status, said Kate Egan, Yerkes public relations director. Great apes and other types of primates besides macaques-including all the animals lent by Yerkes to the Atlanta Zoo-don’t carry Herpes B. While common in adult macaque monkeys, infection with the Herpes B virus is extraordinarily rare in humans. All macaques are considered to be potential shedders of Cercopithecine herpesvirus type 1 (Herpesvirus simiae, B virus). The infection is generally subclinical or mild (conjunctivitis or oral vesicles) in Macaca spp but usually causes a fatal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis in people. Post-Exposure To B Virus From Old World, Macaque Monkeys First Aid Treatment. Wash all the chlorhexidine solution out of the wound after you are done scrubbing so that the wound can be cultured. The injury need not be severe for infection to occur, although non-penetrating wounds are thought to carry a lower risk of transmission.
Herpes B Virus
1 Herpes B and Bali monkey bites 1. 2003; 9: 246-250) that said A recent survey of workers at a Balinese Hindu temple that is a refuge for free-ranging macaques and a tourist attraction showed that contact between humans and macaques sufficient to transmit B virus commonly occurred. While all non-human primates carry zoonotic diseases, the phylogenetic closeness of the Old World primates makes their zoonoses of particular concern. It is safest to assume that all macaques are carrying and capable of transmitting Herpes B infection. Primates are bred in captivity in the United States and sold for the pet trade. Compounding the risk of physical injury to the public, primates of all sizes potentially can transmit to humans dangerous viral diseases such as yellow fever, monkey pox, Ebola and Marburg virus, Herpes simiae (herpes B), simian immunodeficency virus (SIV, the primate form of HIV), viral hepatitis and measles. Eighty to 90 percent of all macaque monkeys are infected with herpes B virus or simian B, a virus that is harmless to monkeys but fatal to 70 percent of humans who contract it. Most macaque monkeys carry a disease called simian herpes virus B. According to the U. Center for Infectious Diseases, Of primary concern when evaluating macaque bites are bacterial and B-virus infections. It means an infection and/or inflammation of the brain and the all-important membranes that surround the central nervous system.
15 Herpes B (Herpesvirus simiae) AGENT: DNA Herpesvirus.